Map State West Sheet, W 1856/1
Australia from surveys made by order of the British Government
AUSTRALIA FROM SURVEYS MADE BY ORDER OF THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT COMBINED WITH THOSE OF D'ENTRECASTEAUX, BAUDIN, FREYCINET, &c, &c BY JOHN ARROWSMITH. 1856.
London, Pubd. 1st Jany. 1856, by John Arrowsmith, 10 Soho Sq.
[WEST SHEET] Extent E 112° TO E 137° 30'
The sheets are designed to be joined along E 134°. On the west sheet the area between E 134°and E 137° 30' is not updated
Bottom right: [Eastern Hemisphere]
Date in title date is 1856
Date is 1st Jany. 1856
SOUTH AUSTRALIA, WESTERN AUSTRALIA, NORTH AUSTRALIA
ARNHEM LAND, TASMAN LAND, DAMPIER LAND, DE WITT LAND, ENDRAGT LAND, EDEL LAND, VLAMING LAND, LEEUWIN LAND, NUYTS LAND, VICTORIA
COUNTIES: WESTERN AUSTRALIA
Twenty-six counties are shown which are numbered and listed in table bottom left.
The boundary between New South Wales and Western Australia shown at 129°E. The territorial limits of the Colony of Western Australia first formally defined by Letters patent dated 4th March 1831. Prior to that date the western boundary of New South Wales was by Letters patent of 6th July 1825, proclaimed at Sydney 20th Dec. 1825 extended to 129°E. The western boundary of South Australia is shown at 132°E declared on 28th December 1836. In the 1846/1 state of the map a boundary between South Australia and North Australia appears at 26°S. (Letters patent dated 17th February, 1846, proclaimed at Sydney 9th November 1846 and at Port Curtis on 30th January 1847) As from state 1847/1 some issues of this sheet show the boundary between South Australia and North Australia at 26°S but extended to meet the Western Australia/North Australia boundary at 129°E. This leaves a small rectangle of undefined territory south of 26°S between South Australia and Western Australia. (McLelland, M. H. 1971, p. 672-4, 677)
George Grey and Franklin Lushington Dec. 1837- April 1838, John Lort Stokes 1837-38, John Clements Wickham 1839, John Edward Eyre 1840, Wickham and Stokes April-Sept. 1840, Augustus Charles Gregory 1846 and Nov. 1848, L. Leichhardt 1844-45, John Septimus Roe 1848-49, Robert Austin 1854, A. C. Gregory 1855-56.
NOTES ON COASTS
See West 1838/1
This state of the map is closer to 1857 than 1856.
In the 1840/1 state of the map Victoria is inserted on the Coburg Peninsula. Coburg Peninsula is shortened to Coburg Pa.
State 1840/3 shows the results of John Clements Wickham's discoveries on the north coast, of the Adelaide R. (3 line note) and the Victoria River (6 line note. Disc. By Wickham Aug 1839). New place names on the Adelaide R. are Mt. Welcome and on the Victoria R. And coast Treachery B., Keys Inlet, Quoin I., Queen's Channel, Victoria R., Endeavour Hill, McAdams Range, Sea Range, Sand I., Whirlwind Plains, Beagle Valley and Fitzroy Range. On the west coast Exmouth Gulf is now shown with an open head and the note Bottom indistinctly seen has been removed and an Island has been shown near the head opposite a Hill on the east coast.
In the 1846/1 state of the map the new colony of NORTH AUSTRALIA appears above 26°S.
In the 1847/1 state of the map the final part of Ludwig Leichhardt's expedition track is shown in Arnhem Land from southern Queensland to Port Essington and around the west coast of the Gulf of Carpentaria with many rivers named.
In the 1856/1 state the long note about the Victoria River removed.
Northern Territory/Western Australia
The 1856/1 state of the map records two unnamed expeditions one led by Augustus Charles Gregory in 1855/56, from Pt. Pearce on the eastern shore of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf up the Victoria River to 20°30'S/128°E.(The Great Sandy Desert). The Sturt Creek and Denison Plains named. (Cannon, Michael 1987, pp. 212-214)
The first 1838 issue of the map is notable for its blank interior. Almost all the information is coastal in nature except for the south-west corner of the continent.
In the 1839/1(1838/2) state of the map the name WESTERN AUSTRALIA has been added to the map. Fifteen counties are named and delimited on the map with the exception of Kent which lacks northern and eastern limits.
Also in this state of the map new names appear from Lieut. Lort Stokes survey in King Sound. He has renamed the Sound in honour of Phillip Parker King who had previously named it Cygnet Bay. The following names appear; Beagle Bay, King Sound, Roe's I., Hope Inlet, Disaster B. Valentine I., Fitzroy R., Mary I., Pt. Torment, Stokes Bay and Port Usborne. (Hordern, Marsden 1989, p.62, 63 map, 72 and 82 and loose map)
Names appear following George Grey's expedition to Hanover Sound (Dec.1837) accompanied by five men one of whom was his close friend Lt. Franklin Lushington. The course of the Glenelg River appears and also shown are Lushington's farthest and Lt. Grey's farthest. (Cannon, Michael 1987, p. 186)
In the 1840/1 state of the map the number of counties has been increased to 26 names which are now numbered and listed separately in a table. This state shows the increase in knowledge of the area east and south of Perth. An explorer's track is shown east of Perth to Lake Brown and then west to the Moore River. The northern boundary of Twiss County has been adjusted southwards.
Moving down the west coast on the land opposite Jurien Bay a note appears Three rocky hillocks on the ridge.In the west Kimberley area in
King Sound the following names have been added from Lort Stokes work on this coast in the Beagle during 1837 and 1838; Cone Bay, Saddle Hill and Compass Hill on the eastern shoreline .In the area where the Fitzroy R. debouches into King Sd. Is found the comment Thick forest, trees large, further east at Collier Bay two comments have been removed from the hinterland of Collier Bay. The names Doubtful Bay inserted above Collier Bay and Slate Is. (nr. Camden Sound). (Hordern, Marsden 1989, p.62, 63 map, 72 and 82 and loose map)
Names appear following George Grey's expedition to Hanover Sound (Dec.1837) accompanied by five men one of whom was his close friend Lt. Franklin Lushington. Stephen Ra is inserted across the mouth of the Glenelg R. Mount Lyell named Also shown are Lushington's farthest and Lt. Grey's farthest. (Cannon, Michael 1987, p. 186)
New developments are shown as far east as almost 119°E.
In the 1840/3 state of the map George Grey set out once more in February 1839 to explore the coast from Shark Bay southwards. On the west coast opposite Geographe Channel, appears Kelaina Pt and below this Lyell Range and the Gascoyne R. shown flowing into Shark Bay. Mangrove flats shown south of the Gascoyne. Long Pt. appears on the mainland opposite Faure Is.
Further south the Murchison R. appears and behind it a range is shown. The following places have been added Victoria Ra., Hutt River, Bowes R., Chapman R., Port Grey, Greenough R., M. Hill, Irwin R., Water Pk., Mt. Horner, Arrowsmith River, Herschel Ra., Gairdner Ra., Hills R. And Smith's Grave (Frederick Smith, a member of George Grey's 1839 expedition to the Gascoyne area).(Cannon, Michael, 1987 pp. 188-189)
In the 1841/1 state of the map a long note added to the south coast at the Head of the Great Australian Bight re [Edward John] Eyre reaching this location in December 1840.
In the 1842/1 state of the map the Houtman Abrolhos Islands off the west coast have been redrawn and the individual island and passage names appear, i.e. North Is., Wallabi Is., Middle Passage, Easter Island, Zeewyk Passage. The Pelsaert Group named and South I. and Batavia Rd. named. South of these is Turtle Dove. (Hordern, Marsden 1989, pp 212-219 passim)
On the opposite mainland coast Port Grey repositioned further north. Mt. Fairfax name repositioned.
In the 1846/1 state of the map the Colony of NORTH AUSTRALIA appears.
In the 1847/1 state of the map the north-west coastline has been redrawn and new place names and notes on the nature of the country appear; Pt. Blaze, Solitary I., Cape Missiessy. The note on the north-west coastline, which was on the original West 1838/1 state between 117°E and 121°30'E., which referred to the French has been removed. It read: This part of the coast from Forestier Island to C. LatoucheFreville was only seen by the French Expedition at a distance, it appeared to be low and sandy and fronted by extensive Shoals.
In the 1850/1(1848/1) state of the map more hill features appear behind the newly redrawn north-west coast coastline between 117°-120°E. Also in this area west of Forestier's Island a coastal note on mud flats appears.
New coastal names appearing on the west coast at about 29°S are Champion Bay, Moresby Ra., Mt. Victoria & Albert, Buller River. The following names have been repositioned Hutt R., Greenough R. & M. Fairfax, and the note on Sandy patch moved from north to south of R. Arrowsmith. The following names have been removed: Mt. Naturaliste, Victoria Ra., Menai Hd., Table Hill, note on Flat Top Hill, Herschel Ra. and Mt. Horner. Compare with previous state i.e. West 1847/1.
Explorations by A. C. Gregory in 1846 are now shown east of Perth, then north to 28°30'S and west towards the coast at Arrowsmith River, then southwards back to Perth (28°30'- 29°30'S / 114°15'-114°30'E.). The exploration route is incorrectly shown passing down the Arrowsmith River rather than the Irwin River, where Gregory discovered coal.
A further November 1848 exploration by A.C. Gregory is shown north of Perth following an inland route parallel to the coast to the Murchison River and back to Perth which suggests that this state was not published before mid 1849. However ms. Sources suggest that Arrowsmith did not obtain this information until some time in 1850. See 1850/1(1848/1)
The 1850/2(1850/1) state of the map shows the results of John Septimus Roe's 1848-49 explorations south and east of Perth in the hinterland of the south coast as far east as the Russell Range (124°E ) and north to 32°30'S, then north and west back to Perth. (Cannon, M. 1987, p 207-8)
In the 1856/1 state of the map is shown an expedition carried out in August / September 1854 by Robert Austin which explored northwards from Perth to 26°S and east as far as Mount Magnet which he described as 'probably one of the finest goldfields in the world'. His party continued north and found Lake Austin 118°45'E and finally traversed the upper reaches of the Murchison River and reached Shark Bay. (Cannon, M. 1987, p. 209)
Changes AND ADDITIONS
The date in the title is changed to 1856.
The date in the imprint is changed to 1st Jany. 1856
Northern Territory/Western Australia
The long note about the Victoria River removed. This state records two unnamed expeditions one led by Augustus Charles Gregory in 1855/56, from Pt. Pearce on the eastern shore of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf up the Victoria River to 20°30'S / 128°E.(The Great Sandy Desert). The Sturt Creek and Denison Plains named. (Cannon, Michael 1987, pp. 212-214)
Also shown in this state is an expedition carried out in August / September 1854 led by Robert Austin which explored northwards from Perth to 26°S and east as far as Mount Magnet which he described as 'probably one of the finest goldfields in the world' and. His party found Lake Austin 118°45'E and explored the upper reaches of the Murchison River and finally reached Shark Bay. (Cannon, M. 1987, p. 209)
- 1616 - 1856
- Situation date
- January 1856
- Map Publication Date - Publication date January 1856 but nearer 1857
National Archives (UK)
MR 1/391 a) Map showing Asst. Surveyor R. Austin's route into the interior of Western Australia, 1854. (sgd. J. S. Roe, Surveyor General). A. Hillman, Lithographer.
West Sheet, W 1838/1
West Sheet, W 1839/1 (1838/2)
West Sheet, W 1840/1
West Sheet, W 1840/2
West Sheet, W 1840/3
West Sheet, W 1841/1
West Sheet, W 1842/1
West Sheet, W 1846/1
West Sheet, W 1847/1
West Sheet, W 1850/1 (1848/1)
West Sheet, W 1850/2 (1850/1)
West Sheet, W 1850/3 (1853/1)
West Sheet, W 1856/1
West Sheet, W 1858/1
West Sheet, W 1862/1
West Sheet, W 1862/2
Australia [West Sheet], W 1884/1
Australia [West Sheet], W 1887/1
Institutional and Other Holdings
National Library of Australia Map Collection
- Australia from surveys made by order of the British Government combined with those of D'Entrecasteaux, Baudin, Freycinet &c.&c [cartographic material] / by John Arrowsmith, MAP RM 3277; National Library of Australia Map Collection. Details
Royal Geographical Society
- Australia from surveys made by order of the British Government combined with those of d'Entrecasteaux, Baudin, Freycinet, etc, 1856, mr Australia G.39; Royal Geographical Society. Details
- Cannon, Michael, The exploration of Australia, Reader's Digest, Sydney, 1987, 304 pp. Details
- Hordern, Marsden, Mariners are warned! : John Lort Stokes and H.M.S. Beagle in Australia 1837-1843, Melbourne University Press at the Miegunyah Press, Carlton, Victoria, 1989, 359 pp. Details
- Tooley, Ronald Vere, The mapping of Australia and Antarctica, Holland Press, London, 1985, 649 pp. Details
- McClelland, M. H., 'Colonial and state boundaries in Australia', The Australian Law Journal, vol. 45, November 1971, p. 679. Details
- Australia from surveys
- National Library of Australia Map Collection
Dorothy F. Prescott
Created: 10 January 2012, Last modified: 2 September 2013